Nested mounts cause error, "umount: foo : device is busy." when umounting parent directory
You can't seem unmount a filesystem. You see something like this:
# umount /mnt/disk_image_loop umount: /mnt/disk_image_loop: device is busy. (In some cases useful info about processes that use the device is found by lsof(8) or fuser(1))
You confirm that no terminal windows have a shell set to that working directory. You then find that fuser -m /mnt/disk_image_loop and lsof -n -N | grep disk_image_loop give no useful information. Checking losetup you see that a loopback device to associated with the mount point.
# losetup --all /dev/loop0: [fc00]:25953690 (/var/disk-images/sid.img)
This can happen with nested mounts. When checking mount it is easy to overlook additional mounts inside your mounted filesystem. For example, if you are building a root filesystem you might have /var/disk-images/sid.img mounted on /mnt/disk_image_loop then not notice that you have have additional proc and devpts filesystems mounted on directories under /mnt/disk_image_loop. You must unmount these filesystems before you can unmount /mnt/disk_image_loop.
/dev/sda1 on / type ext4 (rw,noatime,errors=remount-ro) proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev) sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev) udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755) tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev) devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=620) /var/disk-images/sid.img on /mnt/disk_image_loop type ext3 (rw) /proc on /mnt/disk_image_loop type none (rw,bind) devpts on /mnt/disk_image_loop type devpts (rw)
This will list all the disks that Linux sees. This will not show loop devices. See `losetup` example for more information:
- Convert a VMWare flat split image disk set to a raw disk image
- cat linux-server-f001.vmdk linux-server-f002.vmdk linux-server-f003.vmdk > linux-server.img
- Find the start of partitions
- fdisk -l -u linux-server.img
- First partition usually starts at block 63. Each block is usually 512 bytes. Offset is therefore
- echo $((63*512))
- Find the start of each partition down to the exact offset byte (easier than `fdisk`)
- parted linux-server.img unit b print
- List the next available loopback device
- losetup -f
- Attach loopback to a partition offset inside of a disk image
- losetup -o $((63*512)) /dev/loop0 linux-server.img
- Create a mount point
- mkdir -p /media/adhoc
- Mount the partition
- mount /dev/loop0 /media/adhoc
- Unmount the partition before cleaning up loop device
- umount /media/adhoc
- Cleanup the loop device
- losetup -d /dev/loop0
losetup -- mount individual partitions in a whole disk image
If you have a while disk image and you want to mount partitions inside that image then use `losetup` to create a loopback device for the image. For example, say you copied an entire disk using `dd` like this:
dd if=/dev/sda of=disk.img
You can later create a loop device for it and see its partitions with `fdisk` and mount those partitions individually with `mount`. Note that `fdisk -l` does not normally show loop devices. You must add an explicit path to the loop device that you want to list.
losetup /dev/loop0 disk.img fdisk -l /dev/loop0
The previous example assumed that /dev/loop0 was free. You can you the '-f' option to automatically find a free loop device. In this example we first use the '-f' option to associate the image file with the next available loop device; then we use the '-j' option to see what loop device was associated with the file:
losetup -f disk.img losetup -j disk.img
mounting partitions inside a disk image without loop device
It is also possible to mount partitions inside a disk image file directly with `mount` using the 'offset' option, but I have not had luck with this.
mount -o loop,ro,offset=1025 disk.img /media/adhoc
Use `dd_rhelp`. This is a wrapper around `dd_rescue` that makes it easier to use.