Pexpect makes Python a better tool for controlling other applications.

Pexpect is a pure Python module for spawning child applications; controlling them; and responding to expected patterns in their output. Pexpect works like Don Libes' Expect. Pexpect allows your script to spawn a child application and control it as if a human were typing commands.

Pexpect can be used for automating interactive applications such as ssh, ftp, passwd, telnet, etc. It can be used to a automate setup scripts for duplicating software package installations on different servers. It can be used for automated software testing. Pexpect is in the spirit of Don Libes' Expect, but Pexpect is pure Python. Unlike other Expect-like modules for Python, Pexpect does not require TCL or Expect nor does it require C extensions to be compiled. It should work on any platform that supports the standard Python pty module. The Pexpect interface was designed to be easy to use.

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Pexpect is Open Source, free, and all that stuff.
It is licensed under the Python Software Foundation License.


Download the current version here from the SourceForge site. Grab the tarball pexpect-current.tgz. You should also grab the pexpect-examples.tgz tarball as this is the best way to learn to use Pexpect.

Installing Pexpect

The pexpect-current.tgz tarball is a standard Python Distutil distribution.

  1. download pexpect-current.tgz
  2. tar zxf pexpect-current.tgz
  3. cd pexpect-current
  4. python install


The pexpect-examples.tgz tarball contains the following scripts that give examples of how Pexpect can be used.

This implements a command similar to the classic BSD "script" command. This will start a subshell and log all input and output to a file. This demonstrates the interact() method of Pexpect.

This is for cleaning up binary files improperly added to CVS. This script scans the given path to find binary files; checks with CVS to see if the sticky options are set to -kb; finally if sticky options are not -kb then uses 'cvs admin' to set the -kb option.

This demonstrates an FTP "bookmark". This connects to an ftp site; does a few ftp stuff; and then gives the user interactive control over the session. In this case the "bookmark" is to a directory on the OpenBSD ftp server. It puts you in the i386 packages directory. You can easily modify this for other sites. This demonstrates the interact() method of Pexpect.

This runs a sequence of commands on a remote host using SSH. It runs a simple system checks such as uptime and free to monitor the state of the remote host.

This will login to each given server and change the password of the given user. This demonstrates scripting logins and

This starts the python interpreter and prints the greeting message backwards. It then gives the user iteractive control of Python. It's pretty useless!

This is a wizard for mencoder. It greatly simplifies the process of ripping a DVD to Divx (mpeg4) format. It can transcode from any video file to another. It has options for resampling the audio stream; removing interlace artifacts, fitting to a target file size, etc. There are lots of options, but the process is simple and easy to use.

This lists a directory on a remote machine.

This starts an SSH tunnel to a remote machine. It monitors the connection and restarts the tunnel if it goes down.

This will run the uptime command and parse the output into variables. This demonstrates using a single regular expression to match the output of a command and capturing different variable in match groups. The regular expression takes into account a wide variety of different

Project Status

This is mature, quality code. Automated pyunit tests reach over 80% code coverage on I regularly test on Linux and BSD platforms. I occaisonally test on Solaris and Irix. Generally everything works pretty well. The examples tarball has several sample scripts.

I also built a protoype a screen scraper. I have a working ANSI terminal emulator (VT100 compatible), it is not extensively tested with real-world applications.

Requirements for use of Pexpect


Pexpect was written and tested with Python 2.1. It should work on earlier versions that have the pty module. I sometimes even manually test it with Python 1.5.2, but I can't easily run the PyUnit test framework against Python 1.5.2, so I have less confidence in Pexpect on Python 1.5.2.

pty module

Any POSIX system (UNIX) with a working pty module should be able to run Pexpect. The pty module is part of the Standard Python Library, so if you are running on a POSIX system you should have it. The pty module does not run as well on all platforms. I have taken effort to try to smooth the wrinkles out the different platforms. To learn more about the wrinkles see Bugs and Testing.

Pexpect does not currently work on the standard Windows Python(see the pty requirement); however, it seems to work fine using Cygwin. It is possible to build something like a pty for Windows, but it would have to use a different technique that I am still investigating. I know it's possible because Libes' Expect was ported to Windows. If you have any ideas or skills to contribute in this area then I would really appreciate some tips on how to approach this problem.


Automatically generated module documentation is here!

It is strongly recommended that you learn to use Pexpect by downloading the examples tarball :-)


Pexpect can be used for automating interactive applications such as ssh, ftp, passwd, telnet, etc. The Pexpect interface was designed to be easy to use. Here is an example of Pexpect in action:

# This connects to the openbsd ftp site and
# downloads the recursive directory listing.
import pexpect
child = pexpect.spawn ('ftp')
child.expect ('Name .*: ')
child.sendline ('anonymous')
child.expect ('Password:')
child.sendline ('')
child.expect ('ftp> ')
child.sendline ('cd pub')
child.expect('ftp> ')
child.sendline ('get ls-lR.gz')
child.expect('ftp> ')
child.sendline ('bye')

Obviously you could write an ftp client using Python's own ftplib module, but this is just a demonstration. You can use this technique with any application. This is especially handy if you are writing automated test tools.

There are two common methods in Pexpect -- expect() and send() (or sendline() which is like send() with a linefeed). With the expect() command you cause your script to wait for the child application to return a string. The string can be regular expression. The send() method writes a string to the child application. From the child's point of view it looks just like someone typed the text from a terminal. After each call to expect() the before and after properties will be set to the text printed by child application. The before property will contain all text up to the expected string. The after string will contain the text that was matched (remember, the expected string is a regular expression, so the matched string does not equal the expected string necessarily). The match property is set to the re MatchObject if there is a successful match. If the child has died and you have read all the child's output then expect will raise an EOF exception. You can read everything up to the EOF without generating an exception by using the expect(pexpect.EOF). In this case everything the child has output will be available in the before property.

An example of Pexpect in action may be more clear. This example uses ftp to login to the OpenBSD site; list files in a directory; and then pass interactive control of the ftp session to the human user.

import pexpect
child = pexpect.spawn ('ftp')
child.expect ('Name .*: ')
child.sendline ('anonymous')
child.expect ('Password:')
child.sendline ('')
child.expect ('ftp> ')
child.sendline ('ls /pub/OpenBSD/')
child.expect ('ftp> ')
print child.before # Print the result of the ls command.
child.interact() # Give control of the child to the user.

The pattern given to expect() is a regular expression. It can also be a list of regular expression. This allows you to match multiple responses. The expect() method returns the index of the pattern that was matched. For example, say you wanted to login to a server. After entering a password you could get various responses from he server. Your password could be rejected; or you could be allowed in and asked for your terminal type; or you could be let right in and given a command prompt. The following code fragment gives an example of this:

child.sendline (my_secret_password)
# We expect any of these three patterns...
i = child.expect (['Permission denied', 'Terminal type', '[#\$] '])
if i==0:
print 'Permission denied on host. Can't login'
elif i==2:
print 'Login OK... need to send terminal type.'
child.expect ('[#\$] ')
elif i==3:
print 'Login OK.'
print 'Shell command prompt', child.after

If nothing matches an expected pattern then expect will eventually raise a TIMEOUT exception. The default time is 30 seconds, but you can change this by passing a timeout argument to expect():

# Wait no more than 2 minutes (120 seconds) for password prompt.
child.expect('password:', timeout=120)

Find the end of line -- CR/LF conventions
Matching at the end of a line can be tricky
$ pattern is useless.

Pexpect matches regular expressions a little differently than what you might be used to. It reads one character from the stream at a time. After each character it tests if all of the regular expressions for a match. Note, pexpect does have an internal buffer, so reads are faster than one character at a time, but from the user's perspective the regex test happens one character at a time.

The $ pattern for end of line match is useless. With Pexpect I have not found any use for the $ pattern. The $ matches the end of string which is immediately preceding each newline, but Pexpect reads the stream one character at a time, so each character looks like the end of a line. Pexpect can't do a look-ahead into the stream. In general you would have this situation when using regular expressions with any stream.

So the best way to match the end of a line is to look for the newline.

Pexpect compiles all regular expressions with the DOTALL flag. With the DOTALL flag a "." will match a newline. See the Python documentation

UNIX uses just linefeeds to end lines of text, but not when it comes to TTY devices! TTY devices are more like the Windows world. Each line of text end with a CR/LF combination. When you intercept data from a UNIX command from a TTY device you will find that the TTY device outputs a CR/LF combination. A UNIX command may only write a linefeed (\n), but the TTY device driver converts it to CR/LF. This means that your terminal will see lines end with CR/LF (hex 0D 0A). Since Pexpect emulates a terminal, to match ends of lines you have to expect the CR/LF combination.

child.expect ('\r\n')

If you just need to skip past a new line then expect ('\n') by itself will work, but if you are expecting a specific pattern before the end of line then you need to explicitly look for the \r. For example the following expects a word at the end of a line:

child.expect ('\w+\r\n')

But the following would both fail:

child.expect ('\w+\n')

And as explained before, trying to use '$' to match the end of line would not work either:

child.expect ('\w+$')

So if you need to explicitly look for the END OF LINE, you want to look for the CR/LF combination -- not just the LF and not the $ pattern.

This problem is not limited to Pexpect. This problem happens any time you try to perform a regular expression match on a stream. Regular expressions need to look ahead. With a stream it is hard to look ahead because process generating the stream may not be finished. There is no way to know if the process has paused momentarily or is finished and waiting for you. Pexpect must implicitly always do a NON greedy match (minimal) at the end of a input {### already said this}.

Beware of + and * at the end of input.

Remember that any time you try to match a pattern that needs look-ahead that you will always get a minimal match (non greedy). For example, the following will always return just one character:

child.expect ('.+')

This example will match successfully, but will always return no characters:

child.expect ('.*')

Generally any star * expression will match as little as possible

One thing you can do is to try to force a non-ambiguous character at the end of your \d+ pattern. Expect that character to delimit the string. For example, you might try making thr end of your pattrn be \D+ instead of \D*. That means number digits alone would not satisfy the (\d+) pattern. You would need some number(s) and at least one \D at the end.

Matching groups

You can group regular expression using parenthesis. After a match, the match parameter of the spawn object will contain the Python Match object.


Using "match" and groups...


If you get the string value of a pexpect.spawn object you will get lots of useful debugging information. For debugging it's very useful to use the following pattern:

    i = child.expect ([pattern1, pattern2, pattern3, etc])
    print "Exception was thrown"
    print "debug information:"
    print str(child)

It is also useful to log the child's input and out to a file or the screen. The following will turn on logging and send output to stdout (the screen).

    child = pexpect.spawn (foo)
    child.logfile = sys.stdout



Note that two flavors of EOF Exception may be thrown. They are virtually identical except for the message string. For practical purposes you should have no need to distinguish between them, but they do give a little extra information about what type of platform you are running. The two messages are:

End Of File (EOF) in read(). Exception style platform.

End Of File (EOF) in read(). Empty string style platform.

Some UNIX platforms will throw an exception when you try to read from a file descriptor in the EOF state. Other UNIX platforms instead quietly return an empty string to indicate that the EOF state has been reached.

Expecting EOF

If you wish to read up to the end of the child's output without generating an EOF exception then use the expect(pexpect.EOF) method.


The expect() and read() methods will also timeout if the child does not generate any output for a given amount of time. If this happens they will raise a TIMEOUT exception. You can have these method ignore a timeout and block indefinitely by passing None for the timeout parameter.

child.expect(pexpect.EOF, timeout=None)


This is not a real FAQ, since no one really asked me most of these questions. I just made them up. If anyone asks real questions then I will put them here.

Q: Isn't there already a Python Expect?

A: Yes, there are several of them. They usually require you to compile C. I wanted something that was pure Python and preferably a single module that was simple to install. I also wanted something that was easy to use. This pure Python expect only recently became possible with the introduction of the pty module in the standard Python library. Previously C extensions were required.

Q: The before and after properties sound weird.

Originally I was going to model Pexpect more after Expect, but then I found that I could never remember how to get the context of the stuff I was trying to parse. I hate having to read my own documentation. I decided that it was easier for me to remember what before and after was. It just so happens that this is how the -B and -A options in grep works, so that made it even easier for me to remember. Whatever makes my life easier is what's best.

Q: Why not just use Expect?

A: I love it. It's great. I has bailed me out of some real jams, but I wanted something that would do 90% of what I need from Expect; be 10% of the size; and allow me to write my code in Python instead of TCL. Pexpect is not nearly as big as Expect, but Pexpect does everything I have ever used Expect for.

Q: Why not just use a pipe (popen())?

A: A pipe works fine for getting the output to non-interactive programs. If you just want to get the output from ls, uname, or ping then this works. Pipes do not work very well for interactive programs and pipes will almost certainly fail for most applications that ask for passwords such as telnet, ftp, or ssh.

There are two reasons for this.

First an application may bypass stdout and print directly to its controlling TTY. Something like SSH will do this when it asks you for a password. This is why you cannot redirect the password prompt because it does not go through stdout or stderr.

The second reason is because most applications are built using the C Standard IO Library (anything that uses #include <stdio.h>). One of the features of the stdio library is that it buffers all input and output. Normally output is line buffered when a program is printing to a TTY (your terminal screen). Everytime the program prints a line-feed the currently buffered data will get printed to your screen. The problem comes when you connect a pipe. The stdio library is smart and can tell that it is printing to a pipe instead of a TTY. In that case it switches from line buffer mode to block buffered. In this mode the currently buffered data is flushed when the buffer is full. This causes most interactive programs to deadlock. Block buffering is more efficient when writing to disks and pipes. Take the situation where a program prints a message "Enter your user name:\n" and then waits for you type type something. In block buffered mode, the stdio library will not put the message into the pipe even though a linefeed is printed. The result is that you never receive the message, yet the child application will sit and wait for you to type a response. Don't confuse the stdio lib's buffer with the pipe's buffer. The pipe buffer is another area that can cause problems. You could flush the input side of a pipe, whereas you have no control over the stdio library buffer.

More information: the Standard IO library has three states for a FILE *. These are: _IOFBF for block buffered; _IOLBF for line buffered; and _IONBF for unbuffered. The STDIO lib will use block buffering when talking to a block file descriptor such as a pipe. This is usually not helpful for interactive programs. Short of recompiling your program to include fflush() everywhere or recompiling a custom stdio library there is not much a controlling application can do about this if talking over a pipe.

The program may have put data in its output that remains unflushed because the output buffer is not full; then the program will go and deadlock while waiting for input -- because you never send it any because you are still waiting for its output (still stuck in the STDIO's output buffer).

The answer is to use a pseudo-tty. A TTY device will force line buffering (as opposed to block buffering). Line buffering means that you will get each line when the child program sends a line feed. This corresponds to the way most interactive programs operate -- send a line of output then wait for a line of input.

I put "answer" in quotes because it's ugly solution and because there is no POSIX standard for pseudo-TTY devices (even though they have a TTY standard...). What would make more sense to me would be to have some way to set a mode on a file descriptor so that it will tell the STDIO to be line-buffered. I have investigated, and I don't think there is a way to set the buffered state of a child process. The STDIO Library does not maintain any external state in the kernel or whatnot, so I don't think there is any way for you to alter it. I'm not quite sure how this line-buffered/block-buffered state change happens internally in the STDIO library. I think the STDIO lib looks at the file descriptor and decides to change behavior based on whether it's a TTY or a block file (see isatty()).

I hope that this qualifies as helpful.

Don't use a pipe to control another application...

Pexpect may seem similar to os.popen() or commands module. The main difference is that Pexpect (like Expect) uses a pseudo-TTY to talk to the child application. Most applications do no work well through the system() call or through pipes. And probably all applications that ask a user to type in a password will fail. These applications bypass the stdin and read directly from the TTY device. Many applications do not explicitly flush their output buffers. This causes deadlocks if you try to control an interactive application using a pipe. What happens is that most UNIX applications use the stdio (#include <stdio.h>) for input and output. The stdio library behaves differently depending on where the output is going. There is no way to control this behavior from the client end.

Q: Can I do screen scraping with this thing?

A: That depends. If your application just does line-oriented output then this is easy. If it does screen-oriented output then it may work, but it could be hard. For example, trying to scrape data from the 'top' command would be hard. The top command repaints the text window.

I am working on an ANSI / VT100 terminal emulator that will have methods to get characters from an arbitrary X,Y coordinate of the virtual screen. It works and you can play with it, but I have no working examples at this time.



On Linux (RH 8) you cannot spawn a child from a different thread and pass the handle back to a worker thread. The child is successfully spawned but you can't interact with it. The only way to make it work is to spawn and interact with the child all in the same thread. [Adam Kerrison]

Timing issue with send() and sendline()

This problem has been addressed and should not effect most users.

It is sometimes possible to read an echo of the string sent with send() and sendline(). If you call sendline() and then immediately call readline() you may get part of your output echoed back. You may read back what you just wrote even if the child application does not explicitly echo it. Timing is critical. This could be a security issue when talking to an application that asks for a password; otherwise, this does not seem like a big deal. But why do TTYs do this?

People usually report this when they are trying to control SSH or some other login. For example, if your code looks something like this:

child.expect ('[pP]assword:')
child.sendline (my_password)

1. SSH prints "password:" prompt to the user.
2. SSH turns off echo on the TTY device.
3. SSH waits for user to enter a password.
When scripting with Pexpect what can happen is that Pexpect will response to the "password:" prompt before SSH has had time to turn off TTY echo. In other words, Pexpect sends the password between steps 1. and 2., so the password gets echoed back to the TTY. I would call this an SSH bug.

Pexpect now automatically adds a short delay before sending data to a child process. This more closely mimics what happens in the usual human-to-app interaction. The delay can be tuned with the 'delaybeforesend' attribute of the spawn class. In general, this fixes the problem for everyone and so this should not be an issue for most users. For some applications you might with to turn it off. child = pexpect.spawn ("ssh") child.delaybeforesend = 0

Try changing it to look like the following. I know that this fix does not look correct, but it works. I have not figured out exactly what is happening. You would think that the sleep should be after the sendline(). The fact that the sleep helps when it's between the expect() and the sendline() must be a clue.

child.expect ('[pP]assword:')
child.sendline (my_password)

Timing issue with isalive()

Reading the state of isalive() immediately after a child exits may sometimes return 1. This is a race condition. The child has closed its file descriptor, but has not yet fully exited before Pexpect's isalive() executes. Addings a slight delay before the isalive() will help. In the following example isalive() sometimes returns 1:

child = pexpect.spawn('ls')
print child.isalive()

But if there is any delay before the call to isalive() then it will always return 0 as expected.

child = pexpect.spawn('ls')
print child.isalive()

Truncated output just before child exits

So far I have seen this only on older versions of Apple's MacOS X. If the child application quits it may not flush its output buffer. This means that your Pexpect application will receive an EOF even though it should have received a little more data before the child died. This is not generally a problem when talking to interactive child applications. One example where it is a problem is when trying to read output from a program like 'ls'. You may receive most of the directory listing, but the last few lines will get lost before you receive an EOF. The reason for this is that 'ls' runs; completes its task; and then exits. The buffer is not flushed before exit so the last few lines are lost. The following example demonstrates the problem:

child = pexpect.spawn ('ls -l')
child.expect (pexpect.EOF)
print child.before

Controlling SSH on Solaris

Pexpect does not yet work perfectly on Solaris. One common problem is that SSH sometimes will not allow TTY password authentication. For example, you may expect SSH to ask you for a password using code like this:

child = pexpect.spawn ('ssh')
child.expect ('assword')
child.sendline ('mypassword')
You may see the following error come back from a spawned child SSH:

Permission denied (publickey,keyboard-interactive).

This means that SSH thinks it can't access the TTY to ask you for your password. The only solution I have found is to use public key authentication with SSH. This bypasses the need for a password. I'm not happy with this solution. The problem is due to poor support for Solaris Pseudo TTYs in the Python Standard Library.


Current Release

Fixed OSError exception when a pexpect object is cleaned up. Previously you might have seen this exception:

Exception exceptions.OSError: (10, 'No child processes') 
in <bound method spawn.__del__ of
<pexpect.spawn instance at 0xd248c>> ignored

You should not see that anymore. Thanks to Michael Surette.

Added support for buffering reads. This greatly improves speed when trying to match long output from a child process. When you create an instance of the spawn object you can then set a buffer size. For now you MUST do the following to turn on buffering -- it may be on by default in future version.

child = pexpect.spawn ('my_command')
child.maxread=1000 # Sets buffer to 1000 characters.

I made a subtle change to the way TIMEOUT and EOF exceptions behave. Previously you could either expect these states in which case pexpect will not raise an exception, or you could just let pexpect raise an exception when these states were encountered. If you expected the states then the 'before' property was set to everything before the state was encountered, but if you let pexpect raise the exception then 'before' was not set. Now the 'before' property will get set either way you choose to handle these states.

Older changes...

The spawn object now provides iterators for a file-like interface. This makes Pexpect a more complete file-like object. You can now write code like this:

child = pexpect.spawn ('ls -l')
for line in child:
print line

I added the attribute exitstatus. This will give the exit code returned by the child process. This will be set to None while the child is still alive. When isalive() returns 0 then exitstatus will be set.

I made a few more tweaks to isalive() so that it will operate more consistently on different platforms. Solaris is the most difficult to support.


You can now put TIMEOUT in a list of expected patterns. This is just like putting EOF in the pattern list. Expecting for a TIMEOUT may not be used as often as EOF, but this makes Pexpect more consitent.

Thanks to a suggestion and sample code from Chad J. Schroeder I added the ability for Pexpect to operate on a file descriptor that is already open. This means that Pexpect can be used to control streams such as those from serial port devices. Now you just pass the integer file descriptor as the "command" when contsructing a spawn open. For example on a Linux box with a modem on ttyS1:

fd ="/dev/ttyS1", os.O_RDWR|os.O_NONBLOCK|os.O_NOCTTY)
m = pexpect.spawn(fd) # Note integer fd is used instead of usual string.
m.send("+++") # Escape sequence
m.send("ATZ0\r") # Reset modem to profile 0
rval = m.expect(["OK", "ERROR"])

Pexpect now tests itself on Compile Farm!

I wrote a nice script that uses ssh to connect to each machine on Source Forge's Compile Farm and then run the script for each platform. The result of the test is then recorded for each platform. Now it's easy to run regression tests across multiple platforms.

Pexpect is a file-like object

The spawn object now provides a file-like interface. It supports most of the methods and attributes defined for Python File Objects.

I changed write and writelines() so that they no longer return a value. Use send() if you need that functionality. I did this to make the Spawn object more closely match a file-like object.

read() was renamed to read_nonblocking(). I added a new read() method that matches file-like object interface. In general, you should not notice the difference except that read() no longer allows you to directly set the timeout value. I hope this will not effect any existing code. Switching to read_nonblocking() should fix existing code.

I changed the name of set_echo() to setecho().

I changed the name of send_eof() to sendeof().

I modified kill() so that it checks to make sure the pid isalive().

I modified spawn() (really called from __spawn())so that it does not raise an expection if setwinsize() fails. Some platforms such as Cygwin do not like setwinsize. This was a constant problem and since it is not a critical feature I decided to just silence the error. Normally I don't like to do that, but in this case I'm making an exception.

Added a method close() that does what you think. It closes the file descriptor of the child application. It makes no attempt to actually kill the child or wait for its status.

Add variables __version__ and __revision__ (from cvs) to the pexpect modules. This is mainly helpful to me so that I can make sure that I'm testing with the right version instead of one already installed.

Logging changes

log_open() and log_close() have been removed. Now use setlog(). The setlog() method takes a file object. This is far more flexible than the previous log method. Each time data is written to the file object it will be flushed. To turn logging off simply call setlog() with None.

isalive changes

I renamed the isAlive() method to isalive() to match the more typical naming style in Python. Also the technique used to detect child process status has been drastically modified. Previously I did some funky stuff with signals which caused indigestion in other Python modules on some platforms. It's was a big headache. It still is, but I think it works better now.

attribute name changes

The names of some attributes have been changed. This effects the names of the attributes that are set after called the expect() method.

Everything before the match.
Everything after and including the first character of the match
This is the re MatchObject from the match.
You can get groups() from this.
See '' in the examples tar ball.
New -- Did not exist

EOF changes

The expect_eof() method is gone. You can now simply use the expect() method to look for EOF.


p.expect_eof ()


p.expect (pexpect.EOF)


The following platforms have been tested:

Linux 2.4.9-ac10-rmk2-np1-cerf2
all tests passed
Linux 2.4.18 #2
all tests passed
MacOS X Darwin Kernel Version 5.5

failed more than one test.

Generally Pexpect works on OS X, but the nature of the quirks cause a many of the tests to fail. See bugs (Incomplete Child Output). The problem is more than minor, but Pexpect is still more than useful for most tasks. The problem is an edge case.

Linux 2.2.20
all tests passed
Linux 2.4.18-5smp
all tests passed
OpenBSD 2.9 GENERIC#653
all tests passed

failed test_destructor

Otherwise, this is working pretty well. The destructor problem is minor. For some reason, the second time a pty file descriptor is created and deleted it never gets returned for use. It does not effect the first time or the third time or any time after that. It's only the second time. This is weird... This could be a file descriptor leak, or it could be some peculiarity of how Solaris recycles them. I thought it was a UNIX requirement for the OS to give you the lowest available filedescriptor number. In any case, this should not be a problem unless you create hundreds of pexpect instances... It may also be a pty module bug.

Windows XP Cygwin failed test_destructor. That it works at all is amazing to me. Cygwin rules!



Add an option to add a delay after each expect() or before each read()/readline() call to automatically avoid the echo bug.


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