Thermite -- Aluminothermic Welding
mass percentages: 23.7% aluminum (a gray powder), 76.3% iron(II,III) oxide - Fe3O4 - a black powder - Other names: ferrous ferric oxide and magnetite.
3Fe3O4(s) + 8Al(s) ⇒ 4Al2O3(s) + 9Fe(s) ΔH = -3347.6 kJ/mol
This reaction produces a larger amount of energy/mole reaction.
mass percentages: 25.3% aluminum (a gray powder), 74.7% iron(III) oxide - Fe2O3 - a red powder - Other names: ferric oxide and hematite.
Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s) ⇒ Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(s) ΔH = -851.5 kJ/mol
This reaction produces more energy/gram of thermite mixture.
Thermate is a mixture of thermite and pyrotechnic additives for incendiary purposes. It is the filer used in AN-M14 TH3 incendiary hand grenades. Its composition by mass percentages is: 68.7% Magnetite thermite, 29.0% Barium nitrate - Ba(NO3)2, 2.0% Sulfur, 0.3% dextrin as a binder.
This is ignited by a starter material such as a mixture by mass percentages of: 66% Potassium Nitrate, 11% Titanium, 8% Aluminum, 6% Silicon, 2% Sulfur, 5% Charcoal, and 2% Polyacrylic rubber..
Barium peroxide: oxidizer. A precursor for hydrogen peroxide. Mixed with magnesium powder and lit with a magnesium ribbon it will ignite thermite (mix 1.7 g barium peroxide with 0.2 g magnesium powder).
The Ames Process is an adaptation of the thermite reaction to obtain pure Uranium.
Boil 1 liter of (sodium hypochlorite) chlorine bleach until crystals begin for form. Allow the solution to cool. Filter to remove crystals. Keep the solution for the process. Do this under a fume hood.
Prepare 1 liter of saturated potassium chloride solution. Filter to remove crystals. Keep the solution for the process.
Mix solutions in equal volumes.
Potassium chlorate will precipitate out. Chill the solution to force more Potassium chlorate to precipitate out. Filter and dry to obtain potassium chlorate crystals.
- boric acid B(OH)3
- WEP (Water Extended Polyester)
- ethylene glycol
- propylene glycol
- diethyl ether
- Nitric acid - HNO3
- Sulfuric acid - H2SO4
- Hydrochloric acid - HCl
- Phosphoric acid - H3O4P
- Hydrofluoric acid - HF: Hydrofluoric acid is dangerous. It is toxic on contact and may be painlessly absorbed through the skin. Initial contact is painless and may be unnoticed. Toxic results are slow to take effect, but difficult to treat once results become evident. See Boric acid as an antidote. Consumer-friendly concentrations are fairly easy to obtain in concentrations of about 4% (but still dangerous). Useful in etching glass (even a 4% solution is effective for this). It can dissolve glass without leaving an etched surface; the surface is left smooth. It is useful for decapping integrated circuits.
- Boric acid - BH3O3: Useful as an antidote to hydrofluoric acid contact. Used as a flux for soldering and metal casting. Used as an insecticide. Insecticides can be found composed of 100% boric acid powder. Although Boric acid is an insect poison it is relatively safe for mammals (but still treat with caution).
- Formic acid - CH2O2
- Carbonic acid - H2CO3: Formed when carbon dioxide dissolves in water.
- Acetic acid - CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2): When undiluted it is known as glacial acetic acid. Vinegar is 3% to 18% acetic acid (the remainder is mostly water).
- Sodium hydroxide - NaOH: Lye, Soda lye, Caustic soda. Note that lye may refer to any metal hydroxide, but when someone refers to just lye they usually mean sodium hydroxide; although, the historical origin of lye used for soap comes from wood ashes yielding potassium carbonate, which is converted to potassium hydroxide. Potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide may often be substituted for each other.
- Potassium hydroxide - KOH: Caustic potash. Tshe historical origin of lye used for soap comes from wood ashes yielding potassium carbonate, which is converted to potassium hydroxide by mixing with a strong solution of calcium hydroxide. Potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide may often be substituted for each other.
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