transistors

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reverse blocking diode

STPS2L60 Power Schottky Rectifier

Low voltage drop. Handles moderately high power loads. low reverse leakage current.

Common Transistors

Bipolar transistors
2N3055: old fashioned, high power switching transistor. These days it almost never makes sense to use a 2N3055 when a MOSFET or IGBT could be used instead.

Bipolar junction: 2N2222, 2N3904, and 2N3906

BC547: You find this transistor used often in European publications. The 2N3904 makes a good substitution for the BC547B transistor.

MOSFET BS170 and 2N7000

The BS170 is nearly identical to the 2N7000, but handles over twice the power.

max voltage
60 V
max current
500 mA (BS170), 200 mA (2N7000)
max power
883 mW (BS170), 400 mW (2N7000)
on resistance
5 Ω at 10 V Vgs
off leakage current
10 nA (10e-9 A, or 0.00000001 Amps)

MOSFET IRFZ44N

This is a popular high power MOSFET (HEXFET). Aka TrenchMOS. Includes integral zener diodes for ESD protection.

VDSS
55 V
ID
49 A
RDS(on)
17.5 mΩ

MOSFET IRF510 and IRF520

The IRF510 is a popular high power MOSFET (see also, IRFZ44N, for a more powerful, robust alternative).

max voltage
100 V
max current
5.6 A, but at 100 ℃: 4 A
on resistance
0.54 Ω at 10 V Vgs

The IRF520 will switch higher current. The entire IRF series needs about a 10 Volt gate voltage to switch their full rated power, so TTL level switching will not make full use of their rated max current. The IRL series is better suited for switching from TTL signal levels. The IRL540 and IRLZ44 are good options.

MOSFET IRL540

The IRL series of FET transistors are specifically designed to switch at digital logic voltage levels (5 VDC, some down to 3.3 VDC).

               inductive load
+5V o-----------*--(M)--*
                |       | 
                ---|<---*
                 1N4001 |
                        |
                    |--/
digital o---*-------||<-. IRL540
            |       |---|
            \           |
            / 1K to     |
            \10K        |
            /           |
            |           |
Gnd o-------*-----------*

MOSFET BUK95/9629-100B

This is a pretty awesome MOSFET. N-channel enhancement mode field-effect power transistor

max voltage
100 V
max current
46 A
on resistance
24 mΩ
Vthreshold
2 V
ideal for 12 V, 24 V and 42 V loads

IGBTs: 25N120, 30N120

Diodes

1N4148 and 1N4001, 1N4002, etc.

BY229 (fast switching diode suitable for freewheeling diode)

Optoisolators

PC817